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The Violet-Crowned City & the Legacy of Ancient Greece

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Hearken, O ye who seek knowledge of bygone days! I, a humble slave of the Almighty, have devoted many moons to the study of the chronicles of ancient Greece. I have beheld the deeds of heroes, the fall of great empires, and the marvels of yore. And now, in an attempt to honor the legacy of a long-gone age, I shall undertake a new quest: to pen this missive in the grandiose and self-aggrandizing manner of the ancient Greek historians.

For they were a people who held themselves in high esteem, who reveled in the splendor of their achievements, and who recorded their deeds for posterity with unabashed pride (and they often thought and spoke too highly of themselves!). Their words flow like honeyed streams of boastful eloquence, their stories woven with the threads of hubris and valor.

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Therefore, let us don our robes of purple and gold, for we shall write of things that were, as if we had seen them with our own eyes, and speak with the voice of the ancients themselves. For we are the inheritors of great wisdom, and we shall perpetuate the legacy of these very ancients, who chronicled the triumphs and tribulations of the grandest minds, for what would we be if we don’t see the past from the ancients’ eyes?

(N.B. in simple English, I shall attempt to write most of this article using the tone and style of an ancient Greek historian  – here we go)

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Part I:
The Violet-Crowned City


Verily, in the days of old, the fair city of Athens did prosper and flourish, with trade and commerce thriving, and with wisdom, knowledge, and the pursuit of truth finding root in the hearts of its citizens. The Hellenes, as they called themselves, lived in a land known as Hellas, and their way of life was renowned throughout the lands. For amid the wars and battles that marked the age, there was a time of peace, and in this window of peace, the city did flourish, becoming a hub of learning, a wellspring of knowledge, and a bastion of truth.

In the days of this prosperity, it was said that a rich deposit of silver was discovered in Lavrion, a city 24 miles to the southeast of Athens. With this wealth, the Athenians minted coins of a new standard, known as the drachma, and these coins did soon become the common currency of the Mediterranean. And with the abundance of wealth came a new flourishing of wisdom and knowledge, as the philosophers and wise men of the land came to Athens, seeking to share their teachings with the world.

Socrates, a man renowned for his wisdom, had a pupil by the name of Plato, and he did establish his own school, known as the Akademia, where he taught his own teachings. Aristotle, another student of Socrates, did also establish his own school, known as the Leukeon, and he did tutor Alexander the Great, a man of great renown. And so did other wise men who established their own schools in the city, each with their own teachings and their own way of wisdom.

Epikouros (aka Epicurus), too, did establish his school in the “Garden,” where he taught Epicureanism, a philosophy that sought to understand the world and make sense of it through reason. Pyrrho of Elis, a man who had accompanied Alexander the Great on his journeys, did bring back teachings from the East, where he had encountered the naked sages, or gymnosophists, of India. And with these teachings, he did establish his own school, known as Skepticism, which did take root within the Academy itself.

And so it was that Athens became a center of learning, attracting the wisest and most ambitious of men, and its legacy of knowledge and wisdom endures to this day. The teachings of the Hellenes, so different from those of the Egyptians, did seek to make sense of the world through reason, and their legacy of wisdom and knowledge did shape the course of certain aspects of history for all time.

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In the annals of history, few civilizations have matched (and/or surpassed) the brilliance and innovation of the Ancient Greeks. Though there were other city-states that were larger, such as Syracuse, or wealthier, like Corinth, or mightier, like Sparta, none could match the brilliance that Athens produced. for Athens was home to a massive array of remarkable minds, from Socrates to Aristotle. Even the Romans were fascinated by the Hellenes. This intellectual fervor traveled with the Greeks wherever they settled, spreading their ideas and innovations far and wide, from mainland Greece to the islands, Alexandria, and beyond.

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(Alleged) Inventions

Now, let us speak of the marvels of ancient Greek ingenuity. As the embodiment of knowledge, wisdom, and skill, the Hellenes were not just a people of war, but of wondrous creations as well. From the hydrodynamic screw of Archimedes to the caliper of the early Athenians, the inventiveness of the Hellenes was unparalleled in their time. They were masters of metalwork, as demonstrated by their creation of the crane, and their mastery of architecture is evidenced by the development of the truss roof.

But the ancient Greeks were not just masters of the physical world, they were equally skilled in mapping the unknown. Anaximander, the visionary geographer, was the first to combine geographical knowledge to create maps and provide a glimpse into the mysteries of the earth. He was followed by the builders of the Rutway and the Diolkos (rudimentary forms of the railway), which demonstrated the innovative spirit of the Hellenes in the 6th and 7th centuries BCE.

Their mastery of timekeeping was also a testament to their inventiveness. Philo of Byzantium was among the first to mention escapements in the 3rd century BCE, and it is said that they were in use long before that in the water clocks of ancient Greece. Plato, the great philosopher, and master of the Academy, even had a large water clock with an alarm signal that was said to have echoed the sound of a water organ.

And let us not forget the masterful engineer and inventor, Ctesibius, who added dials and pointers to his clepsydras, and even created elaborate alarm systems. The ancient Greeks were also the pioneers of lock technology, inventing the tumbler lock and advancing the use of gears. Truly, the ancient Hellenes were a remarkable people, who left a lasting legacy of wisdom and skill for generations to come. These were but a few of the many treasures that Athens offered to the world, a testament to the enduring legacy of its brilliance and innovation.

Verily, it is also known to all that the Minoan civilization of Crete, in the ancient Greek realm, was the foremost in matters of hygiene and cleanliness. Lo and behold, excavations at the mighty Olympus and Athens have uncovered a marvel of engineering in the realm of plumbing, with extensive systems of pipes crafted from clay, delivering water and carrying away waste for the baths, fountains, and private use of the citizens.

In contrast, the early upper class of Egypt and Mesopotamia, though they did possess indoor shower rooms, their drainage was but rudimentary, lacking the sophistication of the Greeks, for the water was carried, not pumped. Yet the ancient Greeks were the first to have showers, their aqueducts and sewage systems of lead pipes allowing for water to flow both into and out of their communal shower rooms, accessible to both the elites and the commoners. These showers can still be seen at the site of Pergamum and depicted in pottery of the era, with a design not unlike the locker room showers of our own day, and even equipped with bars to hang clothing.

Moreover, the grand Temple A in Selinunte, Sicily holds a distinction in history, for it was the birthplace of the spiral staircase, constructed in the year 480-470 BCE. It was the first recorded instance of such an architectural marvel. While the Ondol, a heating system using direct heat transfer from wood smoke, was devised by the ancient Koreans, it was the ancient Greeks who first developed central heating, as seen in the Temple of Ephesus, heated by flues in the ground. The Romans, too, made use of central heating, conducting air heated by furnaces through empty spaces under the floor and out of pipes in the walls, known as a hypocaust.

Oh, what tales of invention and innovation the annals of history hold! Let us delve deeper into the marvels crafted by the hands of the ancient Hellenes, for they were indeed a people of great technological prowess.

In the age of the Roman Empire, between the years of 100-70 BCE, the Athenians developed the wondrous Antikythera mechanism. This hand-cranked orrery, considered the earliest analog computer, was used to calculate astronomical positions and eclipses with remarkable accuracy, predicting them decades in advance. Through its use of differential gear, the mechanism could determine the angle between the ecliptic positions of the sun and the moon, allowing for the determination of the phase of the moon.

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In the time of Ptolemy II, the canal lock was invented and implemented into the Ancient Suez Canal. This marvel, also known as The Canal of the Pharaohs or Necho’s Canal, was the precursor to the modern Suez Canal, and remained in use for centuries, until the 8th century CE.

Concerning water innovations, there are conflicting accounts of the invention of water wheels, with some sources claiming they were invented over 4,000 years ago and others crediting the ancient Greeks with their creation 3,000 years ago. Yet, the first “written description” of the water wheel is credited to Philo of Byzantium, who lived around 280-220 BCE.

The ancient Hellenes were also the makers of lighthouses, guiding ships safely to their ports. While legend has it that Palamidis of Nafplio was the inventor of the first lighthouse, the most well-known examples were the Lighthouse of Alexandria, designed and built by Sostratus of Cnidus, and the Colossus of Rhodes (said to have been masterminded by Phoenician engineers at the time). Long before that, the harbor of Piraeus in Athens was graced with a lighthouse in the 5th century BCE, a small stone column with a fire beacon, established by Themistocles. Even before that, the Phoenicians are supposedly the inventors of the lighthouse.

These ancient lighthouses, however, served more as entrance markers to ports than as warning signals for reefs and promontories, as the eyes can see in many modern lighthouses. The only lighthouse that approached the grandeur of the Lighthouse of Alexandria was the Tower of Hercules in Galicia, Spain. Its existence can be traced back to the 1st century CE, and it is said to have been built or perhaps rebuilt under Trajan, possibly on foundations following a Phoenician design, with plans modeled after the Lighthouse of Alexandria. Could it be that the Phoenicians, renowned seafarers and coastal colonizers, were the true inventors of lighthouses? I believe so. Cast thy eyes unto my Phoenician article to find out more.

The list of brilliant inventions keeps going – The Odometer, a device that indicated the distance traveled by a vehicle, was brought forth to the world. The sages of the time, some say it was the brilliant Archimedes, others the learned Heron of Alexandria, laid claim to its creation. Yet all agreed that it was crafted in the 3rd century BCE. With this invention, the building of roads and the travels upon them were revolutionized, for the Odometer measured distance with great accuracy and marked it with milestones so that all might know the journey’s length.

Archimedes, the great thinker, was also the first to describe the might of the lever, which though used in prehistoric times, was put to practical use for advanced technologies in Ancient Greece. In like manner, Philo of Byzantium was the first to describe the concept of the chain drive, a method for transmitting power from one place to another. This device powered the repeating crossbow, the first of its kind, and it too was crafted in the 3rd century BCE.

And so it was that Ctesibius of Alexandria, the great inventor, brought forth a primitive form of the cannon, operated by compressed air. This was also in the 3rd century BCE. Ctesibius was also the first to discover and apply the double-action principle, a universal mechanical principle, in his double-action piston pump. This device was later developed further by Heron into a fire hose, a wondrous tool to combat the flames. Thus it was that the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome brought forth many great inventions, and we have cause to remember and honor their memory, except for the idolatrization of silly idols.

Verily, the birthplace of civilization, Mesopotamia, may have first conjured the notion of watermills due to the dependence of their civilization on agriculture. Yet, the innovation of watermills was credited to the Greeks, who invented the crucial components, the waterwheel, and the toothed gearing. The Romans also made use of the undershot, overshot, and breastshot waterwheel mills. It wouldn’t be until the enlightened days of the Andalusians in Iberia that humanity saw further waterwheel inventions.

Moving on, lo and behold, Philo of Byzantium, a Greek engineer of the bygone era (280-220 BCE), documented the earliest evidence of a water-driven wheel in his technical treatises, Pneumatica and Parasceuastica.

Turning our gaze to the vast expanse of the seas, let us speak of the Syracusia, the first three-masted ship (mizzen) in recorded history. The Syracusian merchant ships under the rule of Hiero II of Syracuse also boasted three masts. The Syracusia, however, was claimed to be the largest transport ship of antiquity, measuring 55 meters in length, 14 meters in width, and 13 meters in height, according to the estimations of Michael Lahanas.

This magnificent vessel was designed by the great Archimedes and built by Archias of Corinth on the orders of Hieron II of Syracuse, around 240 BCE. Moschion of Phaselis, the historian, recounts that Syracusia could carry a cargo of 1600 to 1800 tons and accommodate 1,942 passengers. The ship was also equipped with more than 200 soldiers and a catapult. The builders went to great lengths to protect the hull from biofouling, including coating it with horsehair and pitch, possibly the first instance of antifouling technology.

The Syracusia sailed once from Syracuse to Alexandria, where it was presented to Ptolemy III Euergetes of Egypt and renamed Alexandreia. Moreover, the earliest fore-and-aft rigs, known as Spritsails, appeared in the 2nd century BCE in the Aegean Sea on small Greek craft.

Thus, let us pay homage to the grand achievements of these inventors in the realm of maritime technology and the mastery of watermills.

In the year 300 BCE, the wise inventor Philo of Byzantium didst describe an inkwell of eight angles, with an opening on each face, that could be turned so that any side may face up. With this wondrous contraption, the ink doth never escape through the holes in the side, for the inkwell was suspended at its center and mounted on concentric metal rings, which remained unmoved no matter the turning of the pot. Yet, whether the ancients of China didst invent the gimbal before the Greeks, further study is required. For, during the reign of the Han Dynasty in the land of the rising sun, the great inventor and engineer Ding Huan didst create a gimbal incense burner, said to have been made in the year 180 BCE. And, there is evidence in the writing of the scholar Sima Xiangru that the gimbal was known to the Chinese since the second century BCE.

In the great city of Alexandria, the wise Ctesibius and others of his kin didst develop air and water pumps, which didst serve a multitude of purposes, such as the water organ. And, in the first century CE, Heron, the brilliant inventor, didst create a fountain, as well as the fire hose, based on the double-action piston pump of Ctesibius. This allowed for a more efficient means of fighting fires in the cities. Moreover, Heron was the first to describe the wondrous vending machine, which accepted coins and dispensed a fixed amount of holy water. With the depositing of a coin, it fell upon a pan attached to a lever, opening a valve and allowing the flow of water. As the coin’s weight caused the pan to tilt, it eventually fell off, causing a counterweight to snap the lever back and turn off the valve. And, Heron, in his infinite wisdom, didst create schematics for automatic doors powered by steam, to be used in a temple, a true marvel of engineering.

Conclusion of Greek Inventions

In the annals of Hellenic history, it is recorded that the Greeks (or any other civilization for that matter) were the purveyors of numerous inventions and developments, but it must be acknowledged, first of all, that other civilizations before us were more powerful and advanced. As it is written in the holy Qur’an, countless civilizations came and went before us; civilizations whose wealth, power, and wisdom surpassed our own by many folds.

Furthermore, it must be remembered that throughout history, there have been many civilizations that have been erased from the annals of time, leaving but mere whispers of their existence. Their might and achievements, forever lost to the ages. Others, like the people of Thamud and ‘Aad, were mentioned in the Qur’an only by the names of the relevant messengers along with minor details, whilst the rest, are known only to God and the creatures on the other side of the veil.

Secondly, it must be noted that just because a concept, idea, or invention is recorded in the annals of history, it does not necessarily mean that the credited civilization was its originator. This is a mistake that has been made in the past, especially (and intentionally) by European authors before and after the European Renaissance, who claimed credit for many inventions that were originally attributed to the early Muslims. Even today, we see a lot of ignorant westerners trying to fool their audience by bragging about the so-called “intermittent fasting” and the thousands of other healthy-habit marvels and miracles that were originally informed to us by the blessed Prophet Muhammad, may the peace of God be upon him.

And let it not be forgotten that many of the so-called European inventions were not truly original, but were merely rediscovered and popularized in the western world, and in the western world alone. Such inventions had been previously invented by other civilizations in other parts of the world, for the Europeans have always been backward in almost every aspect of life, and their only method to try and surpass this ignorance by thieving, exploiting, and hoping for the best that the future doesn’t look back at those shameful misdeeds.

Thus, as we pay homage to the ingenuity of the ancient forebears across the civilized world, let us also remember the countless civilizations that came before us and let us learn from the faults of the many more that have been lost to the sands of time. For I, as a slave of the Almighty, shall reiterate the wisest words known to man, the Words of God Himself:

Say (O Prophet), “He is Allah – One and Indivisible (only); Allah, the Sustainer (needed by all, for He is Eternal, Absolute, while we are not, for we are His creation); He has never had offspring, nor was He born (He begetteth not, nor is He begotten); And there is none comparable to Him” (there is none like unto Him).

(Surat Ikhlas – praise be to the Almighty).

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أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا۟ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرُوا۟ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَانُوا۟ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَانُوا۟ هُمْ أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةًۭ وَءَاثَارًۭا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَأَخَذَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَمَا كَانَ لَهُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ مِن وَاقٍۢ

Have they not traveled throughout the land to see what was the end of those destroyed before them? They were far superior in might and richer in monuments throughout the land. But Allah seized them (took their lives) for their sins, and they had no protector from Allah.

(Surat Ghaafir #21)
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ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانَت تَّأْتِيهِمْ رُسُلُهُم بِٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِ فَكَفَرُوا۟ فَأَخَذَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ قَوِىٌّۭ شَدِيدُ ٱلْعِقَابِ

That was because their messengers used to come to them with clear proofs, but they persisted in disbelief. So Allah seized them. Surely He is All-Powerful, severe in punishment.

(Surat Ghaafir #22)
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أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا۟ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرُوا۟ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَانُوٓا۟ أَكْثَرَ مِنْهُمْ وَأَشَدَّ قُوَّةًۭ وَءَاثَارًۭا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَمَآ أَغْنَىٰ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا۟ يَكْسِبُونَ

Have they not traveled throughout the land to see what was the end of those who were destroyed before them? They were far superior in might and richer in monuments throughout the land, but their worldly gains were of no benefit to them.

(Surat Ghaafir #82)
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فَلَمَّا جَآءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُم بِٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِ فَرِحُوا۟ بِمَا عِندَهُم مِّنَ ٱلْعِلْمِ وَحَاقَ بِهِم مَّا كَانُوا۟ بِهِۦ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ

When their messengers came to them with clear proofs, they were prideful in whatever worldly knowledge they had and were ultimately overwhelmed by what they used to ridicule.

(Surat Ghaafir #83)
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فَلَمَّا رَأَوْا۟ بَأْسَنَا قَالُوٓا۟ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَحْدَهُۥ وَكَفَرْنَا بِمَا كُنَّا بِهِ مُشْرِكِينَ

When they saw Our punishment, they cried, “Now we believe in Allah alone and reject what we had been associating with Him!”

(Surat Ghaafir #84)
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فَلَمْ يَكُ يَنفَعُهُمْ إِيمَـٰنُهُمْ لَمَّا رَأَوْا۟ بَأْسَنَا ۖ سُنَّتَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّتِى قَدْ خَلَتْ فِى عِبَادِهِۦ ۖ وَخَسِرَ هُنَالِكَ ٱلْكَـٰفِرُونَ

But their faith was of no benefit to them when they saw Our torment. This has always been Allah’s way of dealing with His wicked servants. Then and there the disbelievers were in total loss.

(Surat Ghaafir #85)
allah / god / islam / muslim / islamic / moslem / bismillah / akbar / muhammad / quran / الله الاسلام محمد مسلم بسم

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Athens: A Deeper Insight

In the days of yore, the city of Athens was a marvel unlike any other in the world. The bustling streets echoed with the sounds of commerce and the voices of her people, narrow and dingy though they may be. Despite the humble appearance of the homes of both the wealthy and the poor, constructed of mere wood and sun-baked clay, the Athenians held a unique conception of the purpose of human life. For they viewed the body and mind as two halves of a whole and believed that a fit mind unattached to a fit body was an incomplete thing.

Thus, they strove to nourish their minds and built one of the earliest global cities the world had ever seen. Master shipbuilders and sailors, they journeyed far and wide to the lands of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and beyond, bringing back the alphabet from the Phoenicians, the art of medicine from the Egyptians, mathematical knowledge from the Babylonians, and the literary works of the Sumerians. And they did so without a hint of shame, for they believed that “what they took from others they perfected,” as the wise philosopher Plato once proclaimed.

The Athenians were a proud people, and their city held a special place in their hearts. Civic life was not merely a choice, but a duty, and anyone who abstained from getting involved in civic life was deemed ‘idiotes’, unfit for life in Athens. The historian Thucydides wrote:

“A man who takes no interest in the affairs of state is not one who minds his own business, but one who has no business being in Athens at all.”

Athens was a city of diversity and inclusiveness, open to the influx of foreign goods, new ideas, and even stranger people. Unlike the Spartans who closed themselves off from the outside world, the Athenians welcomed outsiders with open arms, allowing them to roam freely within the city, even in times of war. It was these outsiders who brought the Athenians new perspectives and strange ideas, and among them were the famous sophists who were born in foreign lands.

Thus, the city of Athens stood as a testament to the power of the human mind and the boundless potential of the human spirit.

As the annals of ancient Greece would recall, the Athenians were also a people of both extravagance and moderation, a dichotomy that was mirrored in their approach to both public works and individual behavior.

It is said that the common Athenians funded grand projects such as the Parthenon through the tribute of their allies in the Delian League, a confederacy formed to repel the Persian threat. Their approach to civic endeavors was characterized by opulence, despite the Greek philosophy of moderation as a virtue. The philosopher Thucydides described them as “adventurous beyond their power, and daring beyond their judgment.”

Yet, it was not only in their public affairs that the Athenians displayed their propensity for extremes; their city was home to a veritable pantheon of quirky and unconventional figures, each adding their own unique flavor to the bustling metropolis.

Hippodamus of Miletus, a polymath renowned for his architectural, mathematical, philosophical, and meteorological pursuits, was known for his peculiar sartorial choices, which earned him both ridicule and respect from his fellow Athenians. Despite being mocked for his eccentricities, he was tasked with designing and building the vital port city of Piraeus.

Similarly, the philosopher Diogenes lived in a wine barrel, the philosopher Cratylus communicated through gestures alone, and Socrates, the greatest of all Athenian oddballs, was eccentric, barefoot, and stubborn. Socrates, who was charged with impiety and corrupting the youth, chose death over banishment from his beloved Athens.

As the comic poet Lysippus once said:

“If you haven’t seen Athens, you’re a fool; if you have seen it and are not struck by it, you’re an ass; if you are pleased to go away, you’re a packhorse.”

In the Fifth Century BCE, the dawn of a new era of education was ushered in amongst the Greeks. The influence of the Sophists, Plato, and Isocrates democratized the manner in which knowledge was imparted, granting access to the masses. During the Hellenistic period, education in the form of gymnasium schools was deemed crucial to partake in the cultural heritage of the Greeks. Physical education was a unique and treasured aspect of the Greek and Roman civilizations.

Two forms of education existed in Ancient Greece – the formal and the informal. Formal education was achieved through attendance at public schools or through private tutors, while informal education was taught by volunteer teachers in non-public settings. Education was a fundamental aspect of a person’s identity and was predominantly available to male citizens and non-slaves. In some poleis, laws were enacted to forbid the education of slaves.

Spartan Society

Putting Athens aside, for now, let’s see some of the features of Spartan society. The Spartan society placed great importance on physical and military prowess, seeking to mold their male citizens into formidable soldiers. As Plutarch recounts, rumors of weak children being put to death were not uncommon. The council would inspect each child, determining if they were fit to live or if they would meet their end through abandonment and exposure. The educational system of the Spartans was renowned for its rigor, an extreme form of military training referred to as agoge. At the age of eighteen, students graduated from the agoge, becoming ephebes and pledging unwavering allegiance to Sparta. Further training was completed through participation in physical competitions, hunting excursions, and planned battles with real weapons. At the age of twenty, the education was concluded, and the young men were officially recognized as soldiers of Sparta.

In stark contrast to their Athenian sisters, the women of Sparta were granted a formal education under the watchful eye of the state. The curriculum was centered around physical training, in which the young women were instructed in the arts of running, wrestling, discus throwing, and javelin tossing. Their abilities were regularly tested through competitions, such as the annual footrace at the Heraea of Elis. In addition to their physical pursuits, the young girls were taught the musical arts, such as singing, dancing, and instrument playing, through the guidance of traveling poets such as Alcman or the experienced elder women of the polis.

The Spartan educational system for females was stringent in nature, with the purpose of producing future mothers capable of rearing strong soldiers to maintain the strength of the Spartan phalanxes, a cornerstone of the city’s defense and culture. Music and dance were also taught, with the intention of augmenting the agility of the soldiers in battle.

Back to Athens

Going back to our original topic, in the times of classical antiquity, the Athenians possessed a highly sophisticated and well-balanced cuisine. Their culinary traditions, including the preparation of cereal soups, pancakes, pies, and tzatziki, have remained largely unchanged for thousands of years.

Contrary to popular belief, they did not subsist solely on a diet of olives and grapes, but rather consumed five meals in a single day, with the main meal being dinner – an event that was often a gathering of family and friends. It was considered essential to leave the table feeling light, such as their emphasis on maintaining a healthy and balanced diet.

In regards to philosophy and beliefs, the ancient Greeks were accepting of agnosticism, with many renowned sophists such as Protagoras, Democritus, and Socrates holding this viewpoint. The Greeks have always held a reverence for technology, as demonstrated in their myths and legends where Zeus, aided by the Cyclops (representing technology and craftsmanship), triumphed over the Hecatonheires (representing the forces of nature). The (idolatrized) gods Hephaestus and Athena, who were revered for their skills in crafting and invention, were invoked by Eupalinos upon the construction of the magnificent Eupalinian tunnel.

While their views on sexuality were different from our own, the ancient Greeks were conservative in these matters, punishing sexual freedom and severely punishing sexual crimes such as the harassment of women or children, adultery, and prostitution. In times of war, they took no prisoners and either executed or enslaved their enemies.

The Athenians were not only known for their tombs and structures such as the Parthenon, but were also skilled engineers and builders. Every city had its own aqueducts, roads, sewerage system, and public structures, including the Diolkos, a path for ships that enabled them to cross the Corinth Isthmus. They made use of a variety of materials, including raw bricks, roasted bricks, stone, and even the first known use of primitive concrete by the Minoans, which they utilized to strengthen their buildings against earthquakes.

Theatrical productions were of great importance in ancient Greece, particularly in Athens, with each production having a producer, writer-director, cast, technical effects, and music composer. During religious festivals such as the Panathenea and Linea, several plays were performed, and the best production was awarded a tripod. In Athens, the tripods won by Athenian productions were displayed along the road from the Dionysos theater to the Stadium, now known as the Tripodes road.

However, in the end, the Athenians, in their pursuit of luxury and ostentation, succumbed to what one historian referred to as “a creeping vanity”. Their once-inclusive policies towards foreigners dissipated, and their houses grew larger and more ornate, while the streets widened, diminishing the city’s intimacy. People became more discerning in their tastes, leading to a widening gap between the rich and poor, citizens and non-citizens. The Sophists, with their mesmerizing oratory, gained greater influence. The pursuit of truth in academia became secondary to the parsing of truth, leading to the decline of the once-thriving urban life. As the wise Herodotus once noted, “human happiness never remains long in the same place.”

Such was the singular character of ancient Athens, a city that embraced the strange and the unconventional, and a people who, like their greatest thinkers, lived and died at the intersection of insider and outsider.

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Part II:
Concluding Critical Remarks & Legacy

The idea that Greece is the birthplace of European civilization is nothing but a myth created by Eurocentric scholars to obscure the truth of the Central world’s (referred to as the “Eastern world” by the double-standard westerners) significant contributions to Europe’s rise.

The notion that Greece had any relation to white Europe or the white race is baseless and unsupported by history. It is the Central civilizations, not the Greeks, who have the closest ties to Greece, for Greece is almost part of the Central world, being right on the borders of the Mediterranean. Moreover, this myth was perpetuated by Eurocentric figures to mask their own civilizational backwardness in comparison to the rest of the (civilized) world. Greece had no connection to the so-called white people’s definition of “Europe,” the white race, or anything beyond its own borders. The true inheritors of Greece’s legacy are the Central civilizations, who have always held a closer relationship with Greece than the Europeans ever have.

The concept of the Aryan race is both absurd and outdated and is a fraudulent invention from the late 19th century, designed to assign a racial identity to people of Proto-Indo-European heritage as a racial group, or whites, as they like to refer to it based on their skin color. This term, derived from the historical usage of “Aryan” as a noble epithet, lacks any validity according to anthropological, historical, and archaeological evidence.

Eurocentric scholars have long perpetuated the notion that the rise of capitalist modernity was solely a European feat, ignoring the crucial role and the substantial contributions played by the Eastern world. However, the prevailing Eurocentric narrative is not only false but also serves to construct a “civilizational line of apartheid” between the West and East, perpetuating the idea of Western superiority and Eastern inferiority. Deconstructing this Eurocentric view and the concept of a “clash of civilizations” reveals the West as nothing more than a hybrid entity shaped by Central influences (or as double-standard westerners refer to as “Eastern influences”).

As I briefly mentioned before how this myth of Greece as being the birthplace of Europe is an absolute fallacy, in modern times, this thought is (wrongfully) deeply ingrained in people’s collective consciousness, with the assumption that science and rational thinking were first established there (Greece), only to be reclaimed after the Dark Ages during the so-called Italian Renaissance without the slightest mention of almost a whole millennia worth of Islamic contributions to EVERY subject matter in this hereby earth.

This Eurocentric view of history is not only misleading but also undermines the rich and diverse contributions of Central civilizations (aka “Eastern civilizations” according to the double-standard westerners) to the world. Hence, as we see today, Europe is showing its true colors for what it truly is and what values it beholds. This entire continent that self-proclaims sophistication, morality, and culture, is now none other than a pitiful state of decadence, depravity, and decay. The continent that falsely claims (and has always claimed) superiority over all other nations now lies writhing in a pool of its own moral decay and intellectual bankruptcy.

As the free world bears witness, the Europe of today is also a hotbed of confusion, immorality, indecency, ignorance, bigotry, and foolishness. The atrocities committed by European nations in recent centuries are too numerous to recount, and their recent involvement in modern world affairs has only served to further solidify their position as the harbingers of instability and destruction to the rest of the world. And yet, the Europeans continue to revel in their delusion of superiority, blind to the devastation they have wrought upon the rest of the world.

But the true evil of Europe goes far beyond its current state of disarray. It is the height of irony that the very same Europe that now calls itself “developed” and “enlightened” have left a legacy (and the exploitation continues to this day) of destruction and destabilization in the so-called “developing” and “underdeveloped” world, resulting in these country’s current state of suffering and degradation. These countries, stripped of their resources and dignity, are now burdened with the consequences of Europe’s greed and exploitation. The legacy of European imperialism, exploitation, and enslavement is a stain that will forever mar their history, a testament to their inherent savagery and cruelty.

The Central world (aka the “Eastern world” in the eyes of the double-standard westerners), with its rich cultural heritage and spiritual wisdom, offers a stark contrast to the decadence of the West. It is time for the people of the world to reject the false ideals of Europe and embrace the timeless values of their own heritage, wherever they are in the world, for the sake of a better future for all.

I must emphasize the insidious nature of the Western colonizers, embodied by the nefarious mentality of Cecil Rhodes. May he and his fellows rot in the depths of hell, alongside all those who share his hateful ideologies. This quote serves as a grim reminder of the depraved mindset of these oppressors:

“It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes; that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, the most human, most honorable race the world possesses.”

It is truly comical how these Western imperialists dare to assert their superiority over others, while aside from low morals and a thousand other flaws, they cannot even maintain basic sanitation/hygiene standards. Such hypocritical behavior only underscores their innate moral decay and numerous shortcomings.

Let me start to wrap things up by stating, once again, that the idea of Greece as the birthplace of European civilization is a fabrication – one that did not emerge until the late 18th century. Before this, there was no notion of a pure European Greece, and certainly not one shared by the Ancient Greeks themselves. They viewed Greece as firmly entrenched in the “Hellenic Occident”, with close spiritual and cultural ties to the East. The attempt to deny this eastern heritage has always resulted in a cheapening and coarsening of Greece’s spiritual and cultural values.

The fact that Ancient Greece owed so much to Ancient Egypt, as the Greeks themselves acknowledged, completely undermines the notion of a pure Aryan lineage for Europe cherished by Eurocentric historians. In truth, tracing the European heritage back to Ancient Greece is to acknowledge the Central (aka Eastern, according to them) roots of Europe.

Similarly, the idea of Europe-as-Christendom is another fabrication that obscures its Asian foundations. Christianity was an oriental religion with much in common with Islam, and the notion of Europe-as-Christendom obscures the many positive Islamic influences that have shaped European development and thinking.

After all, in the 8th century CE, it was the Arab scholars who discovered the rich geographical and astronomical knowledge of the Greeks through translated works of Ptolemy and other Greek philosophers. Impressed by the Greek perspective, Muslim scholars embraced these theories as a foundation for further scientific exploration and continuously added to the body of knowledge.

Unlike Europe, which was in a deep, bottomless pit that they refer to as the Dark Ages, with low literacy rates and a preference for false theology over ancient knowledge, the Islamic world was a beacon of intellectual curiosity. State-sponsored research, combined with a desire for objective truth, allowed for the preservation of ancient Greek writings and the translation of works by philosophers, mathematicians, and scientists, inspiring some of the greatest minds in history.

Theology also played a role, as Islamic theologians sought to find parallels between the Qur’an and ancient Greek texts to prove the truthfulness and superiority of Islam, hence, proving the truth of Muhammad’s (peace be upon him) message. The pursuit of knowledge was a hallmark of the Islamic Golden Age, and it was the Muslims who carried the torch of knowledge and intellectuality after the era of the Greeks.